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Ancient Greece


Archaic period in the history of ancient Greece covers only three centuries - from VIII to VI centuries. BC e. For this relatively short period of time, Greece has significantly surpassed neighboring countries in its development, including the countries of the ancient East, which were at the forefront of the cultural progress of mankind at that time, as evidenced by an unprecedented explosion of creative activity. During this period, Greece revives architecture, monumental sculpture, painting, poems and lyric poems are created, the first philosophers appear in the face Thales, Anaximenes and Anaximander.

TOVIIIcentury BC influence Dorian tribes in ancient Greece noticeably weakened, which led to the restoration of the state system: the archaic period is characterized by the so-called urban revolution - rapid growth city-states (policies)which became the main social and political unit of the Hellenistic world.

This was a period of intensive economic, political and cultural development of Ancient Greece: with the growth of cities (policies) and shopping centers, crafts and arts flourished.

Thanks Great greek colonization Hellenic polis statehood was widespread, in addition to Aegean region, on the coast of the Mediterranean and Black Seas (Evksinsky Pontus), which contributed to the development of commodity-money relations in all corners of the ancient world. All this in aggregate, of course, was reflected in the development of the ancient Greek society as a whole and, in particular, in the economic sphere. Moreover, the development of crafts soon led to the establishment of close economic ties with the metropolis and the cities of Asia Minor, and also contributed to the active development of trade relations with the local population, who gladly purchased their products from Greek artisans. In addition, autochtones bought from Greek merchants agricultural products (wine, olive oil). In turn, grain was supplied from the colonies to Greece, as well as raw materials - such as timber and metal.

Thus, thanks to colonization, a mass of landless people left the territory of Ancient Greece, which undoubtedly smoothed out existing social conflicts. The stratum of society, which managed to accumulate wealth through crafts and trade, began to lead an aristocratic lifestyle, but at the same time it didn’t owned any hereditary privileges: the land still remained in the hands of the clan nobility.

Aggravation of social conflicts in the VII - VI centuries. BC e. promoted birth in large trade and craft centers tyranny - the sole power of the ruler. It should be noted that initially the concept of “tyranny” did not have a contemporary connotation of negativity, since tyrants conducted an active foreign policy, strengthened the army, and took care of the improvement of their cities. In a word, tyranny meant a monopoly on political power. But, nevertheless, as a rule, during the seizure of power, the tyrant mercilessly cracked down on his political opponents, executed them without trial, or sent into exile entire families and even clans, while their property passed into his treasury. That is why, later, the word "tyranny" in the Greek language was associated with merciless bloody arbitrariness.

For all this, tyranny only weakened the clan nobility, without breaking its power. Following the overthrow of tyranny, flashes of intense struggle flared up. During the endless civil wars a new type of Greek state - slave policy, which was the result of many years of transformative activity of lawmakers and, in particular, Athenian reformers - Solon and Cleisthenesas well as the legislator of Sparta - Lycurgus. As you know, the most significant transformations were carried out in the context of the political crisis, when citizens of the policy, who were immensely tired of constant feuds, elected someone from their midst as a mediator and conciliator, one of which was Solon, elected in 594 BC. e. to the post of first archon.

Classic era in the history of ancient Greece calculated from the endVIcentury to 338 BC e. During this period, ancient Greek society reached its peak in all spheres of life.

At the end of the 6th century BC., with the beginning Greek Persian Wars, Greek policies were severely tested by the then stronger Persian despotism of the Achaemenids. 10 years later, with Marathon, the Athenians defeated the army of the Persian king Darius I. In mid-August 480 BC. e. the Persians came to Thermopilam: 300 spartan warriors led by his Tsar Leonid heroically fought against the Persian invaders, defending the post entrusted to them. After the catastrophe in the Battle of Thermopylae, the Greeks commanded Themistocles retreated to the Saronic Gulf, where in September of the same year took place battle of Salamis, ended with the triumphal victory of the Greek fleet.

In 479 BC the Greeks won a brilliant victory over the Persians in the battle of Plateiafter which the Spartans tried in vain to preserve maritime hegemony, eventually losing it to the Athenians (477 BC), in connection with the repeated victories of Athenian democracy in the Greco-Persian wars. As a result, formed Delos Union, or Delos Symmachyalso called First Athens Maritime Union.

The Delos Union, led by Athens, included 200 policies located on the islands of the Aegean Sea and its coasts (with the exception of the southern one). Thus, Athens became a major maritime power, trading through its port of Piraeus - the largest port of the Mediterranean Sea.

Thanks to military success, Athens became the main city of Ancient Greece. Magnificent temples were built on the Acropolis, artists created beautiful works of art, ancient Greek philosophy was replenished with such names as Socrates and Plato. Finally, favorable conditions were created for the development of democratic institutions, which became an example not only for the civilizations of that era, but also for the entire history of Western peoples.

In a word, it has come "Golden age" Athens - famous era of Pericles. Greek democracy established a tax system that allowed for the difference in the financial situation of citizens and the allocation of funds to the poor for training in arts and crafts at the expense of the state. All free citizens were given the right to participate in public administration, as well as to control the work of the city administration. It was the developed democracy society that gave birth to such individuals like Herodotus, Aeschylus and Phidias.

Athens, having strengthened politically, gradually turned its allies in the Delosian Symmachy into subjects, limiting their freedom in maritime trade and introducing the collection of taxes, the so-called foros. Moreover, in the trade relations they began to use the Athenian system of weights and measures (among the policies of the First Athenian Maritime Union there was an Athens minted coin). All this, together with the escalation of the conflict in foreign policy (the struggle of Athens and Corinth for trade routes, as well as the ongoing struggle of Athens with Sparta), led in 431 BC. to Peloponnesian war, which covered most Greek policies, which ended only after 27 years - in 404 BC - the victory of Sparta and the deposition of Athens: they were forbidden to have a navy (the Maritime Union was dissolved).

From that moment, Sparta became the leading policy of Greece, without ceasing to impose its military order, which as a result led to unceasing internecine wars - until the new unification of Greece, but already under the hegemony of Macedonia: against the background of general instability, Macedonia was notable for its high level of development of the economy, technology and military affairs.

The basic prerequisites for the creation of the empire of Alexander the Great were made by his father Philip II - a wise politician and a visionary reformer.

In 337 BC Greece was united under the rule of Macedonia. After the kill Philip II his place was taken by him young son Alexanderwho led the victorious war against the Persians and created a new empire in just 9 years, reaching the Himalayas and the banks of the Ganges.

The main idea of ​​Alexander the Great was to put the end of centuries of strife between Persia and Greece, combining the cultures of the West and the East through a policy of spreading the culture of the ancient Hellenes. That is why the next era in the history of ancient Greece is called Hellenistic.

Hellenistic period (300-30 BC)

In the endIVcenturies the hegemony of Sparta became the main enemy of Greek freedom and independence. So, in Thebes was introduced the Spartan garrison, but in 379 BC democrats, led by Pelopids and Epaminondomas expelled the Spartans, restoring Boeotian Unionthat existed in the VI century. In the years 378-377. BC. was created Second Athens Maritime Union to fight Sparta, which included Thebes, who defeated the Spartans in the battle of Levktra (371 BC). However, the rise of Thebes ended rather quickly - with the death of Theban commander Epaminondas battle of Mantineus (362 BC). But, despite this, Athens still failed to establish the orders in the Second Athenian Maritime Union, which were still valid in the First Union, since the Athenians met with a strong rebuff from the Allies, resulting in Allied war 357-355 BC e., which led to the collapse of the union.

During this period, northern Greece arose new power - Macedonia, remnants of Dorian tribesnot migrated during the Great Greek colonization.

In 346 BC the king of Macedonia was Philip II. By that time they had already conquered Thessaly, Phocis, the peninsula of Halkidiki and the coast of Thrace.

It should be noted that in Athens and other policies of Greece, at the sight of such a powerful military force, society was divided into its supporters and opponents, with the emergence of a pro-Macedonian and anti-Macedonian party, the last of which included Demosthenes, Hyperides and others. Through the efforts of Demosthenes, a coalition of Greek cities was created, however, defeated. at the battle of Heronaeus (338 BC).

Convened Philip IIcongress in Corinth (338-337 BC) finalized submission to Greece Macedonia: Corinthian Congress announced the creation of Union of Greek States led by Macedonia. In all policies, an oligarchic regime was established, which was supported by the Macedonian garrisons.

Battle of Heronaeus and the subsequent conquests of the army of Alexander the Great in the east opened up the Hellenistic period, during which the so-called Hellenistic societies and states were formed that became part of the ancient Greek world. In the Hellenistic era, the Greek world spanned space from Sicily, in the west, to India - in the east and from the Northern Black Sea coast in the north - to the first rapids of the Nile in the south. However, in all periods of ancient Greek history, its central part was considered Aegean regionwhere Greek statehood and culture began, having reached its peak.

Huge empire Alexander the Great collapsed immediately after his death (323 BC). Long fight dyadohov and their successors, the so-called epigones, led to the creation of a number of independent Hellenistic states - such as Seleucid monarchyfounded by Seleucus, with the capital Antioch (Syria), Ptolemaicfounded by the dyadoh Ptolemy Laga in Egypt with the capital Alexandria, as well as Macedonia with the capital in Thessaloniki, whose king was Kassander.

The struggle of policies led by Athens against Macedonia after death Alexander the Great (The Lamian war of 323-322 BC) ended with the victory of Macedonia and the reprisal against the Greek democrats. After secondary lesion in the Chremonid War (267-261 BC), named after the Athenian commander Chremonides, Athens became completely dependent on Macedonian monarchy.

But despite this, Macedonia I couldn’t restore the former power over the Balkan Peninsula, because two new powerful alliances entered the struggle against it - Achaean (revived around 280 BC), which covered most of the Peloponnese (except Sparta) and Aetolian (founded around 320 BC), which included areas of central Greece (except Athens), southern Thessaly and other Greek policies.

The fight of the dyadohs AlexandraIIIOf the great, and later Macedonia with the Achaean and Aetolian Union led to negative consequences: Greek cities were destroyed, residents were sold into slavery, and large shopping centers were settled by new colonists. As a result, the middle classes of the Greek population suffered ruin, the number of poor people increased, and, besides, here and there - in Corinth, Argos, Miletus - unrest flared up, which at that time became almost an ordinary occurrence.

After the defeat inflicted in 197 BC. the Romans of Macedonia at the Battle of Kinoskofalah, Greece came under the influence of Rome, and already with the statement Roman Empire (27 BC) she became Roman province of Achaia (except Athens, which were nominally considered a free city).

From the 4th century AD Greece constituted the core of the Eastern Roman Empire - Byzantium.

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Ancient Greece

- II Polis period (XI — IV centuries BC)

Civilization of the Ancient World • Mediterranean
Ancient Greece

Parthenon, Acropolis of Athens
Other namesHellas
• exotic names- Graecia
Timeend of III — II millennium - 30 BC e.
• periodization
LocalizationThe Mediterranean
• cradle- south of the Balkan Peninsula
• main ethnogenesis- Hellenes
Languageancient greek
• writing- Greek alphabet
Religionancient greek religion
Wikimedia Commons Media Files

Ancient Greece, Elláda (dr. Greek. Ἑλλάς) is the common name for the territories of city states that were inhabited mainly by ancient Greek tribes: Aeolians, Achaeans, Ionians, and Dorians. The ethnic map of Greece remained homogeneous and remained virtually unchanged throughout the ancient era.

To the territories that are included in the concept of "Ancient Greece", scientists include the resettlement of the ancient Greeks during the period of Greek colonization, which begins from the turn of the III — II millennium BC. e. (the emergence of the first state formations on the island of Crete) and ends in the II-I centuries. BC e. when the Greek and Hellenistic states of the Eastern Mediterranean were captured by the Roman Empire and incorporated into the Roman Mediterranean Empire.

The geographical boundaries in ancient Greek history were not constant, they changed in different historical eras, narrowing or expanding as historical development. The territory of Ancient Greece occupied the south of the Balkan Peninsula with adjoining islands of the Aegean Sea, the coast of Thrace, the western coast of Asia Minor and part of the island of Cyprus during the period of Greek colonization of the 8th-6th centuries. BC e. In the east, it included the Black Sea Straits, the Black (Black Sea) coast and the Sea of ​​Azov, in the south - the coast of North Africa (Cyrenaica, modern Libya), in the west - Southern Italy, eastern Sicily, southern Gaul (modern France) and northeast coast of Spain. Basically, these lands coincide with the territory of modern Greece.

The period of the highest economic, political heyday of the polis system fell on the Vl - V centuries. BC e. and received in the history of ancient Greece the name of the classic.

The self-name of the ancient and modern Greeks - Hellenes, passed to the name of the country - Hellas (Hellas). The ethnonym "Greeks" (dr. Greek Γραικοί, lat. Graeci) comes from the Latin language and initially, apparently, belonged to one of the tribes of Northern Greece, which is reflected in the names of the cities of Gray [en] (Γραία) near the ancient city Tanagra in Boeotia and Euboea, was perceived by the Romans, probably from the colonists of the Euboean Gray in Kumah. Georgios Hadzidakis, a professor of linguistics and Indian philology, argued that the "Greeks" were an ancient tribe that partially migrated from the city of Tanagra to southern Italy (in Kuma). The Romans transferred the name "Greeks" to the entire Hellenic people.

Natural conditions

The territorial core of Ancient Greece is the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (Balkan or mainland Greece), the islands of the Aegean Sea and the western coast of Asia Minor.

На северо-западе территория граничила с Иллирией, на северо-востоке — с Македонией, на западе омывалась Ионическим (Сицилийским), а на востоке — Эгейским и Фракийским морями и включала три региона: Северную Грецию, Среднюю Грецию и Пелопоннес. Северная Греция горным хребтом Пинд делилась на западную (Эпир) и восточную (Фессалия) части. Central Greece was delimited from the North by the mountains of Timfrest and Eta and consisted of ten regions (from west to east): Akarnania, Aetolia, Lokrida Ozolskaya, Dorida, Fokida, Lokrida Epiknemida, Lokrida Opuntskaya, Boeotia, Megarida and Attica. The Peloponnese was connected with the rest of Greece by a narrow (up to 6 km) Isthmus of Corinth.

The central region of the Peloponnese was Arcadia, which bordered in the west with Elis, in the south with Messenia and Laconia, in the north with Achaea, in the east with Argolis, Fluntius and Sikion. In the extreme northeastern corner of the peninsula, Corinthia was located. Island Greece consisted of several hundred islands (the largest - Crete and Euboea), forming three large archipelagos: the Cyclades in the south-west of the Aegean Sea, Sporades in its eastern and northern parts and the Ionian Islands in the eastern part of the Ionian Sea. Balkan Greece is basically a mountainous country (it is pierced from north to south by two branches of the Dinar Alps) with an extremely rugged coastline and numerous bays (the largest - Ambraki, Corinth, Messenia, Laconic, Argolida, Saronic, Mali and Pagasei).

Natural conditions [edit |


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