Useful Tips

Little speaker


Sections: Speech therapy


  1. Speech development of the child in the first year of life.
  2. Speech development of the child in the second year of life.
  3. Speech development of the child in the third year of life.
  4. Speech development of a child in the fourth year of life.
  5. Speech development of a child in the fifth year of life.
  6. Speech development of a child in the sixth year of life.
  7. Younger school age (6-7 years).
  8. Recommendations to parents on the formation of correct speech in children.
  9. Games for the development of sound culture of speech.
  10. Games for the formation of the grammatical structure of speech.
  11. Vocabulary enrichment games.
  12. Games for the development of coherent speech.
  13. The program "Literacy".

Speech is the leading process of the child’s mental development. The emotionality of the child, his needs, interests, temperament, character - the entire mental personality traits are revealed in speech. The process of the emergence and formation of their thinking is associated with the process of development of speech in young children. Science claims that the development of speech and thinking goes together, as they form a single whole.

With systematic work and under favorable conditions, by the age of three, children’s speech develops so much that they are able to express in words their desire, thought, and repeat what they remember. They can recite small verses, sing songs.

A child is born with such inherited brain qualities that enable him to learn speech and master the language spoken by the people around him. But in order for him to speak, he needs to hear the speech of adults, he needs to talk to him. The child learns language in adults.

Age up to 7 years is the most favorable time for the development of speech of preschool children. During this period, children learn their native language well, imitate the speech of others.

Unfortunately, always busy parents pay little attention to developing activities with children. Therefore, by the age of 7, the child has problems with speech. The child does not know how to build common sentences. He has a poor vocabulary. Speech is littered with non-literary words and expressions. The child does not know how to pose the right question and give a full detailed answer, build a dialogue, come up with a story, etc.

Systematic and systematic classes with children, the interaction of parents and teachers will help us solve problems with the development of children's speech.

Today we will learn some games and exercises on this topic that you can spend with your child at home.

1. Speech development of the child in the first year of life

Important in the first year of life is the development of speech. In the second month, the child begins to pronounce individual sounds - “aaaa”, “aa-ba-s”, “e-ea”, etc. However, at first the walk is short-term, because it always happens against the background of animation and joy. This indicates good health and a positive emotional mood of the baby.

By four to five months, a long melodious humming is formed with a wide variety of sounds, sometimes inaccessible for reproduction by an adult. And at the age of seven months babble appears. Baby talk is a pronunciation during the proverbial syllables - “ba-ba-ba”, “yes-yes-yes”, “ma-ma-ma”. The baby can “talk” for a long time in this way, causing the joy of parents.

At seven to eight months, the child already understands the individual elements of adult speech and is able to establish a connection between the word heard and a specific way. So, to the question “Where is mom?”, He turns his head and looks towards mom (search visual reaction). Upon a request to play “frogs”, wave a pen, the baby responds with appropriate actions - claps his hands and waves his pen. Also at this age babble develops intensively, elements of imitation of sounds. A child often repeats syllables with various intonations.

Usually the baby pronounces the first words in ten to eleven months. These words consist of monotonous syllables that are easy to pronounce (ma-ma, pa-pa, un-da, ba-ba) or simplified sound imitations (ks-ks), as well as words from the traditional children's language (av-av).

By the year the child knows how to pronounce ten to twelve words, knows the names of many children's toys, the names of loved ones and a few requests - give, show, close. He understands the words "must" and "not."

2. Speech development of the child in the second year of life

In the second year of life, the child gains balance when walking and becomes more mobile. Fine motor skills are also developing: the baby accurately captures objects, eats well with a spoon, turns the pages of books, builds a tower from cubes. By the end of the second year of his life, he knows how to walk up and down stairs, climb into a large chair, kick and kick the ball.

During this period, the child's ability to imitate adult speech increases, understanding of speech, active speech develop intensively. From the first months of the second year of life, the baby increasingly uses meaningful words on his own. In most cases, this is due to a certain situation that causes him joy, surprise (for example, the appearance of his mother, showing a well-known toy or object). However, until a year and a half, the words spoken by the child do not always reflect the real name of the subject. Different toys or objects, often having nothing in common with each other, he calls the same word. The kid uses simplified or onomatopoeic words. Understanding is sharply ahead of the active side of speech - speaking. A child can already, at the request of an adult, find a toy familiar to him among objects, and by one year and three months he is able to perform simple actions, simple tasks.

Up to a year and a half, phrasal speech in children is absent. In an appropriate situation, this function is performed by a sentence word or onomatopoeia (for example, a child asks the mother for a typewriter with a BBC onomatopoeia). Such sentence words or onomatopoeia, depending on the situation, can express different meanings, and they appear in children in one year and two months - one year and six months.

From the second half of the second year of life, the child increasingly begins to use two-word sentences (for example: Mom, give! Etc.), and in one year and ten months he uses two-, three-word sentences, but the words in them are not yet grammatically related.

In a year and a half, the child’s active vocabulary contains about 50-70 words, the bulk of them are nouns: names of toys and objects of the immediate environment, names, adverbs here and now, adjectives large and small, less often - verbs, personal pronouns. The number of words that a child uses by the end of the second year ranges from 100 to 300 words.

In the second year of life, children quite clearly begin to pronounce vowel sounds such as a, y, o, and, sounds e, s can replace the consonance ye. Some consonants are replaced by simpler articulated or distorted sounds, hard consonants t, d, s, s are soft. Along with improper articulation of sound, a simplified pronunciation of words is noted, for example, shortening or naming a syllable, most often stressed or the first: “ko” or “moko” instead of milk.

3.Speech development of a child in the third year of life

In the third year of life, the child is already well balanced when standing, walking, when catching or throwing the ball. The kid can walk, holding the item in one hand. Children of this age distinguish the color, shape, size and weight of the item, add a split picture of two parts. Fine motor skills are being improved: the child is already using a fork, a spoon, and begins to eat on his own.

Normal speech development is characterized by active communication with others with the help of detailed phrases of 3-4 or more words and the use of familiar words in several grammatical forms, for example: give - give - I will not give, kitty - kitty - kitty, etc. The child already understands well the speech addressed to him and the content of fairy tales. For children of the third year of life, speech is the main way of knowing the world, the formation of thinking. At the child in the third year of life, the need for communication with adults and peers increases. The kid begins to understand simple questions, for example: Where is the cat ?, Where did you put the ball? and others. Interest in surrounding objects prompts him to turn to adults with questions such as: What is this ?, Why ?, Where ?, When? etc.

Vocabulary at the end of the third year compared with the previous age increases 3-4 times. The child knows the names of many objects: toys, dishes, clothes, that is, those objects that are in his immediate environment. In the third year of life, the child begins to use verbs, adjectives, denoting not only the size of objects, but also their color, shape, quality, for example: red, green, round, long, bad, good, clean, hot, sweet, etc.

The speech of children by the end of the third year of life is characterized by the appearance of complex sentences: first complex ones, and later complex ones. The child begins to perceive tales that are simple in content and small in volume, and can answer some questions about what they have read. “Ryaba hen”, “Turnip”, “Gingerbread man”, “Teremok”, “Wolves seven kids” - these works are understandable to children, but when retelling they can only negotiate separate words or groups of words for adults. Small texts that have been read many times, the children almost completely memorize by heart, but they usually cannot build a coherent retelling on their own, although some by the end of the third year can easily cope with such a task. At this age stage, it becomes accessible to the child to guess simple riddles if the text contains an answer, for example, familiar onomatopoeic words: Moo, who needs milk? Who is it? and etc.

Despite all the achievements in the development of speech, children still do not clearly and correctly pronounce many words, so their speech as a whole is not always clear to others, for example, complex articulations, consonants: w, w, t, n, s, s, z, l, p - they replace with simpler ones.

4.Speech development of a child in the fourth year of life

In the fourth year of life, children can already make simple judgments about the objects and phenomena of the reality surrounding them, establish a relationship between them, make conclusions. However, there can be individual differences in the general and speech development of children: one at three years of age has a good command of speech, while in others it is still far from perfect.

Kids can easily make contact even with strangers, since they have a great need to know the world around them. Therefore, they constantly ask questions: What is this called ?, Why ?, For what? etc., but due to instability of attention, they may not hear the answer to the end. The approximate volume of the children's dictionary at this time is 1,500-2,000 words of various parts of speech. However, children experience difficulties in transmitting the contents of the tale or in describing the event of which they were participants, because their vocabulary lacks generalizing words, for example: clothes, vegetables and others, as well as word names for parts of objects. During this period, children’s word-building skills and the ability to change words to formulate sentences rapidly develop, which is described in the literature as “children's word-making” (KI Chukovsky “From Two to Five”). So, often they use words that are not in their native language, for example, “digging” instead of a shoulder blade, etc. Toddlers seek to understand the names of objects and actions in their own way.

An indicator of the correct development of children's speech is the appearance of a child’s ability after three years to evaluate one’s and another’s pronunciation. Most children correctly pronounce difficult sounds such as s, e, x, bring the pronunciation of solid consonants with s, z, c closer to normal, often in the speech of the kids there appear consonants w, w, h, l, p.

Each artificially complex sound is acquired by the child in several stages. So, for example, a child does not master the pronunciation of a sound right away, but first replaces it with sounds easier in articulation: d ’, then z’, then z. therefore, in different age periods the word beetle will sound in children's speech as “duke”, “zyuk”, then “zuk” and, finally, “bug”. But even after mastering the correct pronunciation of the sound, the child will still for some time in a coherent speech continue to replace it with s until he has mastered the persistent pronunciation skill. And learning to correctly pronounce w in a coherent speech, the child will begin to use it instead of the sound h, pronouncing “toad” instead of a tooth. In such cases, parents should help the child. Gradual assimilation of the sound system of the language is common to all children without exception and is called “age-related tongue-tied” or “age-related dyslalia”.

To make it more convenient for parents to monitor the timeliness of the appearance of various sounds in the child’s speech, we present a table that gives approximate terms for the children to finalize vowels and consonants.

Where to start classes

The child’s speech formation mechanism starts from the very first day of life. For this process to proceed quickly and smoothly, we adults need to become the most active participants. This long-term investment of our strengths and emotions will pay off with interest more than three to four years later, when we get an interesting interlocutor with our non-standard thinking and judgment. The development of speech in children is the daily work of the baby and parents. Let's look at the stages of speech development in a child.

Where to start? Parents are the speech pattern for the child. That is why it is so important to carefully monitor not only what you say, but how you say it. From the very first days, stimulate the baby's speech: speak with the child as much as possible - pronounce the words clearly, slowly, but emotionally. Sound everything that you do, while trying not to be limited only to everyday speech. Read nursery rhymes, poems - all that is rhythmic and well laid down by ear. Together, consider, more precisely, study pictures in a book that your child loves, ask questions. At first, he will only show what you ask, and then try to repeat after you. Play toys with the child in the theater. Give him an example of building dialogues, situations, and gradually the child will answer you, and then he will come up with the conditions of the game.

Speech is life itself, so do not complete the training in printed materials and interactive toys. The world around you, nature will inspire your baby for new verbal discoveries, develop imagination and arouse imagination. When walking, try to pay attention to such details as a curled dry leaf that looks like a tube, which can become a telescope or a drop of dew, which could very well become a real sea for ants. In summer, build sand castles with winding strokes, launch paper planes together, lay drawings of natural material on the sand. In the fall, collect bouquets of leaves (at the same time learn the names of the trees, shades of flowers), acorns, maple seeds, which then will go to crafts. In winter, sculpt snowmen and paint them with paints, bring home an icicle - let it melt in a basin. In the spring, launch boats in streams, show the baby drops, listen to the tweets of sparrows. All these actions fit into the regimen moments of the child and do not require special costs. But if you miss the time, leave the baby to yourself, then closer to school you will have to catch up with leaps and bounds and what was so naturally laid in childhood will have to be shoved in large portions. And from such information overeating, you yourself know what happens: fatigue, nervousness, unwillingness to learn.

Unfortunately, not every parent has the time and opportunity to deal with his child systematically. Specialists-educators can come to the rescue, including children's speech therapists in children's development centers. Most often, the programs in them are aimed at ensuring that the child develops harmoniously, receiving and assimilating information in accordance with age and individual characteristics.

How to continue learning a child

What happens next? And then we teach the child to use what he has accumulated, that is, correctly and foldingly express his thoughts - explain, prove, build the logic of the narrative and compose. This is a more complex process that goes beyond everyday speech and is related to verbal creativity. Here future sources take their roots.

We begin this stage with the basics - the ability to make a short story about any living and non-living object or object. In the future, this kind of information will come in handy for your first grader to prepare reports: after all, very often it is the inability to properly dispose of a large amount of information that leads the child to find it difficult to start a story, to compose a story from a picture. Этот процесс сравним с вопросом из взрослой жизни: "Как дела?", когда можно долго и разнообразно говорить на предложенную тему, но большинство ограничивается ответом: "Нормально".We will use schemes - these universal cards, which are clear step-by-step instructions and do not allow you to stray from the right path of word-making, at the same time, eliminating repetitions and stumbling blocks in speech.

For example, here is a story about a dog that can be compiled according to this scheme:

"A dog is a pet. The appearance of a dog depends on the breed. Dachshunds are small, with a long body, an elongated muzzle and a long tail. Their paws are short. These dogs are designed to hunt foxes in narrow burrows. Boxers have a flattened muzzle, wide breasts, strong paws - this is a fighting breed. In villages, dogs live on the street in a kennel. In cities, dogs are kept in apartments. They eat meat, special food. Since ancient times, the dog was a friend and an indispensable assistant to humans. She helped him guard the house, graze the sheep, to hunt in lkov, foxes, birds, save the person and on the water and in the mountains. There are special guide dogs for the blind. "

After the child has learned to compose story descriptions, you can proceed to the next step - learning how to compose stories from a series of pictures. Here, the ability to build a logical chain is important: to arrange the pictures in the correct order, because all our actions in ordinary life are performed according to certain schemes.

It is important to convey to the child that the pictures and the events taking place on them are not abstract stories, but what surrounds the baby in everyday life. Let the child identify with the main character. He will tell what he would feel, say and do in place of the character. Let him give his name and the names of his friends to the painted children.

Let the kid tell the rules of the game of hide and seek, napkins, what you need to do to brush your teeth, boil water in the kettle or go down to the first floor.

It is very important to broaden the horizons of the child, to talk about everything that surrounds him - this will greatly help to enrich your baby’s vocabulary and faster to develop full-fledged competent speech. Try to be with your child in different places, try as many different things as possible, play a variety of games. For example, if the baby has never been fishing, he will not be able to compose a story about the fun adventures of the fishing boys on the river, since there are their own laws, their own terminology.

Then we teach the child to write stories from the picture. Connect the imagination and turn one picture into a series of three, mentally representing the beginning, and then the end of our story.

And the last stage - the most difficult - is the ability to compose a story-description of nature from a picture. At first glance, there is no action, no heroes, only one forest. But, closing your eyes and stepping out of reality into the thicket of an imaginary forest, you find that life here is in full swing. In order not to get lost in this more often, we will come to the rescue, again, the description scheme will take the seasons.

Here is an example of a story about autumn, drawn up according to this scheme:

"In the autumn, days are getting shorter and nights are longer. At the beginning of autumn, there are nice days. This time is called“ Indian summer. ”But then the sky frowns, puffs and drizzles the tiresome day and night. A piercing cold wind blows. The trees dress up in painted clothes - yellow, red, orange, purple. The wind blows and multi-colored rain from the leaves rains down from the trees. Autumn is the time of leaf fall. Birds gather in flocks and fly off to the warm edges. Animals are preparing to hibernate, feed fat, make food supplies for the winter. Squirrels, hares take their summer coats to winter ones. "

And finally - communication with the child

In preschool, a child’s natural habitat is a game, so make school a game. Engage, that is, communicate on a walk, on the way to the garden, shop. Do not sit at home at the table, as in school: just let the child look through the book, and then complete the task that interests him, together. If your child is motivated to study, then, on the contrary, you can play with him at school. In any case, be guided by the individual characteristics of your child, find an approach to him, and he will answer you with interest, receptivity and understanding.

Listen carefully to the child, do not interrupt or rush him, do not scold and do not compare with others. Exercise at a time when the child is in a good mood, when he has slept and is not hungry.

The Russian language, like any other, requires regularity, so it is better to study every day than once a week for an hour. When our children begin to learn a foreign language, we understand that only regular classes can guarantee results and effectiveness, learning Russian and developing speech is also no exception and requires a systematic approach.

From an early age it is necessary to teach a child to speak not only the everyday language, but to use all the wealth of the Russian language in his speech. Communication is one of the basic human needs, and your baby needs him like no other. Everyone has the opportunity to create, and we can do it every minute, creating small verbal masterpieces. Language is not only one of the most important means of communication, but also living material, which has its own color, shape and taste. We have to discover this for children, teaching them to create within the framework of certain laws. This is a long way, and it depends on us adults whether it will be a narrow wandering path or a wide road to new knowledge, discoveries and free communication.

Author Marina Kiseleva speech therapist

How to develop a child’s speech

We continue the discussion on the development of the child’s speech, which began in the first part of the article devoted to this problem.

The movements of the body and organs involved in the reproduction of speech have common mechanisms, therefore, the development of fine motor skills of the hands directly affects the development of speech. For this reason, finger gymnastics for the development of children's speech should take a strong place in your activities with the child.

Training of finger movements as it prepares a platform for the further development of speech. You can start training your baby’s fingers within the first 5 months. Read more about fine motor skills here.

And now let's see how you can help your child learn native speech, teach him the correct pronunciation, the construction of phrases and the design of thoughts.

Remember: classes should be held in the most easy, fun and playful way. Then they will bring real benefits and bring real pleasure to both of you.

A set of measures for the development of speech (for home use):

  • The development of fine motor skills
  • Speech gymnastics
  • Logo rhythm

We do not mention here areas of speech development such as speech therapy massage, special exercises for practicing various sounds, for the development of phonemic hearing and some others. They are an area of ​​application exclusively of professional knowledge and skills. Here it is better to trust a specialist, and not try to cope with this task yourself. Benefits for the development of fine motor skills:

  • Nesting dolls
  • Velvet paper
  • Plasticine
  • Mosaic
  • Lacing
  • Beans, Peas
  • Semolina
  • Salty dough
  • Counting sticks
  • Colorful clothespins
  • Beads
  • Rags with sewn buttons
  • Stencils
  • Massage ball
  • Wooden constructors

  • Passive gymnastics - massage for the development of fine motor skills.
  • Active gymnastics - games for the development of fine motor skills: poems and nursery rhymes, finger games, finger theater.

Passive gymnastics (massage)

It is better if an experienced professional shows you the massage technique, but you can learn the simplest techniques yourself.

Massage is performed with one hand, the other holds a massaged brush. The duration of the session is 3-5 minutes, it is carried out several times a day.

Massage includes the following types of movements:

  • Stroking - performed in different directions,
  • Rubbing - differs from stroking by a greater pressure force (the hand does not slip on the skin, but shifts it),
  • Vibration - applying frequent impacts with the tips of half-bent fingers,
  • Massage with a special ball - the ball needs to be made in a spiral motion from the center of the palm to the fingertips, practical advice: the ball should be used solid, that is, it should not be easily deformed (then the effect will be maximum),
  • Flexion-extension of the fingers - the fingers are initially clenched into a fist, each in turn is unbent and massaged from the side of the palm in a circular motion from the base to the tip.

We talk more about massage here.

Active gymnastics: games for the development of speech using fine motor skills

Manuals for games:

  • Colored paper butterflies
  • Colored paper sheets
  • Pinwheel
  • Cotton balls
  • Paper boat

Games for children from 2 months:

  • These are different. Various objects in texture and shape are put into the child’s hand. The kid must grab the item and hold it for a while. Such an exercise develops not only motility, but also tactile sensations. It’s good if you comment on what is happening: “This ball is smooth”, “This prickly hedgehog”, etc.

Games for children from 9 months:

  • Prefabricated nesting dolls. First you need to collect one doll, then gradually complicate the game, after 2 years it should already be a triple matryoshka.
  • The pyramids. First you need to use the classic pyramid, the size of the rings of which decreases to the top.
  • Circle the outline. It is necessary to make cards with images of objects known to the baby, for example, a house, a tree, a typewriter, and to paste over their contours with velvet paper. The essence of the game: an adult leads the baby’s finger along the contour and names the subject. Then the outline is pasted over with beads or peas and the game is repeated.
  • Cups and spoons. A child sprinkles a spoon of sugar or semolina from one cup into another. You can also shift beans, peas, or nuts with your hand.
  • Plasticine modeling. You need to start with the cylinder, and over time complicate the tasks: ball, carrot, snake.

During the games, do not forget to comment on your actions and explain to the child everything that you do.

Games for children from 1 year:

  • Strong palms. The child squeezes rubber toys. The best thing is a rubber hedgehog: the needles act like a massager.
  • Mosaic. First you need to lay out simple shapes: paths, flowers, small squares, and then move on to more complex ones: houses, cars, Christmas trees.
  • Constructor. The magnitude of the details and the complexity of the design depends on the age of the baby: you need to start with the largest parts and with the simplest designs, for example, with the construction of the turret.
  • Beads. The size of the beads also depends on the age of the child. First, instead of beads, you can use balls from the pyramids with round parts and string them on a thick lace, then the size of the parts must be gradually reduced, moving on to real beads. For the exercise, medium-sized already strung beads are used. The goal is to teach the child to lay out the contours of objects from a bead. For example, you can lay out a circle, square, heart, spiral, etc.
  • Lacing. Since lacing is different in content, it makes sense to beat the lacing process - for example, ask a child to sew a dress for mom (lacing-button) or lacing shoes (lacing-boot).
  • Magic tray. A semolina is poured onto a tray with a thin layer and a finger of a child is carried on the croup. Then the baby is shown how to draw various shapes. At the age of 2 to 3 years, you can draw numbers and letters.
  • Colorful clothespins. The essence of the game is to teach the child to snap clothespins on his own, and to make the game interesting, you can do it according to the thematic principle: rays to the sun, needles to the hedgehog, rain to the cloud, grass to the ground. Of course, for this you first have to make blanks. This is a rather difficult task for a child. Do not try to get the result right away. To get started, take the crumbs in your hands and do the exercise with it.
  • Cinderella. You need to mix white and red beans and ask the child to sort it by color.
  • Funny pictures. Distribute plasticine evenly on a sheet of cardboard and show the child how to lay out drawings using peas.
  • Counting sticks. Show the kid how to use the counting sticks to lay out various figures. It is desirable that the counting sticks were not smooth, but ribbed: this serves as an additional massage for the fingers.
  • Little sculptor. Modeling from the dough (dough recipe: 1 cup flour, 1/2 cup salt, a little water). The advantage of the test over plasticine in this case is that crafts can later be used as toys.
  • Button up the button. You will need two pieces of dense fabric. On one of them, wash three buttons of different diameters, in the second cut the loops corresponding to the size. First, show the baby how to fasten the buttons, commenting on his actions: “We insert the large button into the large buttonhole, the middle button into the medium and the small button into the small one.” Then take the child's hands in yours and repeat the exercise. After that, you can offer the baby to try buttoning on his own. Do not insist if the crumbs do not want to or cannot succeed. This is a very difficult exercise and requires successful training.
  • Stencils. It is recommended to start with stencils for the inner stroke (it is easier for the child to circle inside than outside) and with the simplest forms (circle or square). Practical advice: you can purchase ready-made stencils, but it is better to make them yourself. The fact is that most standard stencils have a small thickness, and it is inconvenient for the child to circle them, since the pencil slips all the time. Therefore, the stencils should be quite voluminous. A good way out is to cut them out of a piece of linoleum or a shoe box.

Finger Theater

Finger Theater is an exciting game that:

  • Stimulates the development of fine motor skills,
  • Introduces the child with such concepts of form, color, size,
  • It helps to develop spatial perception (the concepts of “right”, “left”, “side by side”, “one after another”, etc.),
  • Develops imagination, memory, thinking and attention,
  • Helps to develop vocabulary and activates speech functions,
  • Forms creative abilities and artistic skills,
  • Introduces elementary mathematical concepts.

For children aged 1 to 2 years (for example, the tale "Gingerbread Man"):

  • First introduce the child to the characters in the fairy tale. Invite the baby to examine and touch the figures. Then put each character in turn on your finger and describe it.
  • Introduce the child to the name of each finger on the hand. For example, you could say this: "Kolobok is sitting on my index finger."
  • Then play a tale in front of the baby. Put the characters on your fingers and cross your arms into the castle. Start telling a fairy tale by raising your fingers with the characters in the process. For example, the tale "Gingerbread Man" can begin to tell as follows. Raise your finger with the character "grandmother". Tell the kid that this hero will bake Kolobok today. Tap rhythmically on each other with the base of your palms without releasing your fingers. In this case, say: "Grandmother kneads the dough." According to the same principle, beat the appearance of each character.

For children aged 2 to 4 years (for example, the tale "Gingerbread Man"):

  • Ask your child if he remembers the tale "Gingerbread Man". Remind him if necessary.
  • Then ask the baby to put the characters on the table in the order they appear in the fairy tale. At the same time, ask to characterize each of them according to the principle: “Grandma is old, kind, caring, Kolobok is round rosy, mischievous”, etc.
  • Ask your child questions about the fairy tale. For example: “Why did the grandmother decide to bake Kolobok? Why did he leave his grandmother and grandfather? Who met him on the way? ”
  • Then, play a tale in front of a small spectator using the finger theater.
  • At the end, ask the child to play the tale in front of you using the finger theater. If necessary, prompt him.


0-1 year1-2 years2-3 years3-4 years4-5 years old
a, y, and, p, b, mo, n, t ’, d’, t, d, c, d, x, b, fth, l ’, uh, s’, uhs, s, s, c
w, w, h, u
l, p, p ’