Sections: Speech therapy
- Speech development of the child in the first year of life.
- Speech development of the child in the second year of life.
- Speech development of the child in the third year of life.
- Speech development of a child in the fourth year of life.
- Speech development of a child in the fifth year of life.
- Speech development of a child in the sixth year of life.
- Younger school age (6-7 years).
- Recommendations to parents on the formation of correct speech in children.
- Games for the development of sound culture of speech.
- Games for the formation of the grammatical structure of speech.
- Vocabulary enrichment games.
- Games for the development of coherent speech.
- The program "Literacy".
Speech is the leading process of the child’s mental development. The emotionality of the child, his needs, interests, temperament, character - the entire mental personality traits are revealed in speech. The process of the emergence and formation of their thinking is associated with the process of development of speech in young children. Science claims that the development of speech and thinking goes together, as they form a single whole.
With systematic work and under favorable conditions, by the age of three, children’s speech develops so much that they are able to express in words their desire, thought, and repeat what they remember. They can recite small verses, sing songs.
A child is born with such inherited brain qualities that enable him to learn speech and master the language spoken by the people around him. But in order for him to speak, he needs to hear the speech of adults, he needs to talk to him. The child learns language in adults.
Age up to 7 years is the most favorable time for the development of speech of preschool children. During this period, children learn their native language well, imitate the speech of others.
Unfortunately, always busy parents pay little attention to developing activities with children. Therefore, by the age of 7, the child has problems with speech. The child does not know how to build common sentences. He has a poor vocabulary. Speech is littered with non-literary words and expressions. The child does not know how to pose the right question and give a full detailed answer, build a dialogue, come up with a story, etc.
Systematic and systematic classes with children, the interaction of parents and teachers will help us solve problems with the development of children's speech.
Today we will learn some games and exercises on this topic that you can spend with your child at home.
1. Speech development of the child in the first year of life
Important in the first year of life is the development of speech. In the second month, the child begins to pronounce individual sounds - “aaaa”, “aa-ba-s”, “e-ea”, etc. However, at first the walk is short-term, because it always happens against the background of animation and joy. This indicates good health and a positive emotional mood of the baby.
By four to five months, a long melodious humming is formed with a wide variety of sounds, sometimes inaccessible for reproduction by an adult. And at the age of seven months babble appears. Baby talk is a pronunciation during the proverbial syllables - “ba-ba-ba”, “yes-yes-yes”, “ma-ma-ma”. The baby can “talk” for a long time in this way, causing the joy of parents.
At seven to eight months, the child already understands the individual elements of adult speech and is able to establish a connection between the word heard and a specific way. So, to the question “Where is mom?”, He turns his head and looks towards mom (search visual reaction). Upon a request to play “frogs”, wave a pen, the baby responds with appropriate actions - claps his hands and waves his pen. Also at this age babble develops intensively, elements of imitation of sounds. A child often repeats syllables with various intonations.
Usually the baby pronounces the first words in ten to eleven months. These words consist of monotonous syllables that are easy to pronounce (ma-ma, pa-pa, un-da, ba-ba) or simplified sound imitations (ks-ks), as well as words from the traditional children's language (av-av).
By the year the child knows how to pronounce ten to twelve words, knows the names of many children's toys, the names of loved ones and a few requests - give, show, close. He understands the words "must" and "not."
2. Speech development of the child in the second year of life
In the second year of life, the child gains balance when walking and becomes more mobile. Fine motor skills are also developing: the baby accurately captures objects, eats well with a spoon, turns the pages of books, builds a tower from cubes. By the end of the second year of his life, he knows how to walk up and down stairs, climb into a large chair, kick and kick the ball.
During this period, the child's ability to imitate adult speech increases, understanding of speech, active speech develop intensively. From the first months of the second year of life, the baby increasingly uses meaningful words on his own. In most cases, this is due to a certain situation that causes him joy, surprise (for example, the appearance of his mother, showing a well-known toy or object). However, until a year and a half, the words spoken by the child do not always reflect the real name of the subject. Different toys or objects, often having nothing in common with each other, he calls the same word. The kid uses simplified or onomatopoeic words. Understanding is sharply ahead of the active side of speech - speaking. A child can already, at the request of an adult, find a toy familiar to him among objects, and by one year and three months he is able to perform simple actions, simple tasks.
Up to a year and a half, phrasal speech in children is absent. In an appropriate situation, this function is performed by a sentence word or onomatopoeia (for example, a child asks the mother for a typewriter with a BBC onomatopoeia). Such sentence words or onomatopoeia, depending on the situation, can express different meanings, and they appear in children in one year and two months - one year and six months.
From the second half of the second year of life, the child increasingly begins to use two-word sentences (for example: Mom, give! Etc.), and in one year and ten months he uses two-, three-word sentences, but the words in them are not yet grammatically related.
In a year and a half, the child’s active vocabulary contains about 50-70 words, the bulk of them are nouns: names of toys and objects of the immediate environment, names, adverbs here and now, adjectives large and small, less often - verbs, personal pronouns. The number of words that a child uses by the end of the second year ranges from 100 to 300 words.
In the second year of life, children quite clearly begin to pronounce vowel sounds such as a, y, o, and, sounds e, s can replace the consonance ye. Some consonants are replaced by simpler articulated or distorted sounds, hard consonants t, d, s, s are soft. Along with improper articulation of sound, a simplified pronunciation of words is noted, for example, shortening or naming a syllable, most often stressed or the first: “ko” or “moko” instead of milk.
3.Speech development of a child in the third year of life
In the third year of life, the child is already well balanced when standing, walking, when catching or throwing the ball. The kid can walk, holding the item in one hand. Children of this age distinguish the color, shape, size and weight of the item, add a split picture of two parts. Fine motor skills are being improved: the child is already using a fork, a spoon, and begins to eat on his own.
Normal speech development is characterized by active communication with others with the help of detailed phrases of 3-4 or more words and the use of familiar words in several grammatical forms, for example: give - give - I will not give, kitty - kitty - kitty, etc. The child already understands well the speech addressed to him and the content of fairy tales. For children of the third year of life, speech is the main way of knowing the world, the formation of thinking. At the child in the third year of life, the need for communication with adults and peers increases. The kid begins to understand simple questions, for example: Where is the cat ?, Where did you put the ball? and others. Interest in surrounding objects prompts him to turn to adults with questions such as: What is this ?, Why ?, Where ?, When? etc.
Vocabulary at the end of the third year compared with the previous age increases 3-4 times. The child knows the names of many objects: toys, dishes, clothes, that is, those objects that are in his immediate environment. In the third year of life, the child begins to use verbs, adjectives, denoting not only the size of objects, but also their color, shape, quality, for example: red, green, round, long, bad, good, clean, hot, sweet, etc.
The speech of children by the end of the third year of life is characterized by the appearance of complex sentences: first complex ones, and later complex ones. The child begins to perceive tales that are simple in content and small in volume, and can answer some questions about what they have read. “Ryaba hen”, “Turnip”, “Gingerbread man”, “Teremok”, “Wolves seven kids” - these works are understandable to children, but when retelling they can only negotiate separate words or groups of words for adults. Small texts that have been read many times, the children almost completely memorize by heart, but they usually cannot build a coherent retelling on their own, although some by the end of the third year can easily cope with such a task. At this age stage, it becomes accessible to the child to guess simple riddles if the text contains an answer, for example, familiar onomatopoeic words: Moo, who needs milk? Who is it? and etc.
Despite all the achievements in the development of speech, children still do not clearly and correctly pronounce many words, so their speech as a whole is not always clear to others, for example, complex articulations, consonants: w, w, t, n, s, s, z, l, p - they replace with simpler ones.
4.Speech development of a child in the fourth year of life
In the fourth year of life, children can already make simple judgments about the objects and phenomena of the reality surrounding them, establish a relationship between them, make conclusions. However, there can be individual differences in the general and speech development of children: one at three years of age has a good command of speech, while in others it is still far from perfect.
Kids can easily make contact even with strangers, since they have a great need to know the world around them. Therefore, they constantly ask questions: What is this called ?, Why ?, For what? etc., but due to instability of attention, they may not hear the answer to the end. The approximate volume of the children's dictionary at this time is 1,500-2,000 words of various parts of speech. However, children experience difficulties in transmitting the contents of the tale or in describing the event of which they were participants, because their vocabulary lacks generalizing words, for example: clothes, vegetables and others, as well as word names for parts of objects. During this period, children’s word-building skills and the ability to change words to formulate sentences rapidly develop, which is described in the literature as “children's word-making” (KI Chukovsky “From Two to Five”). So, often they use words that are not in their native language, for example, “digging” instead of a shoulder blade, etc. Toddlers seek to understand the names of objects and actions in their own way.
An indicator of the correct development of children's speech is the appearance of a child’s ability after three years to evaluate one’s and another’s pronunciation. Most children correctly pronounce difficult sounds such as s, e, x, bring the pronunciation of solid consonants with s, z, c closer to normal, often in the speech of the kids there appear consonants w, w, h, l, p.
Each artificially complex sound is acquired by the child in several stages. So, for example, a child does not master the pronunciation of a sound right away, but first replaces it with sounds easier in articulation: d ’, then z’, then z. therefore, in different age periods the word beetle will sound in children's speech as “duke”, “zyuk”, then “zuk” and, finally, “bug”. But even after mastering the correct pronunciation of the sound, the child will still for some time in a coherent speech continue to replace it with s until he has mastered the persistent pronunciation skill. And learning to correctly pronounce w in a coherent speech, the child will begin to use it instead of the sound h, pronouncing “toad” instead of a tooth. In such cases, parents should help the child. Gradual assimilation of the sound system of the language is common to all children without exception and is called “age-related tongue-tied” or “age-related dyslalia”.
To make it more convenient for parents to monitor the timeliness of the appearance of various sounds in the child’s speech, we present a table that gives approximate terms for the children to finalize vowels and consonants.
|0-1 year||1-2 years||2-3 years||3-4 years||4-5 years old|
|a, y, and, p, b, m||o, n, t ’, d’, t, d, c, d, x, b, f||th, l ’, uh, s’, uh||s, s, s, c|
|w, w, h, u |
l, p, p ’