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How to teach a child to read syllables at home


Almost all children today go to first grade, already knowing how to read. And to teach parents to read a child 5 or 6 years old, they consider it almost mandatory. Someone relies on classes in kindergarten or on the "fork", someone on the preparation for school. And how to teach a child to read at home? Do I need to learn to read syllables? How to do it right and fast? About the features of teaching reading to preschoolers - in an article from the Center for Primary Education GC "Education".

When to teach a child to read?

When to start? One child already in three years knows the whole alphabet, and the other only by the age of five begins to show interest in books. It's not about age, but about the child’s readiness to learn literacy. Key indicators of such readiness:

  • the child speaks in separate sentences,
  • pronounces most of the sounds clearly
  • can consistently tell how he spent the day in kindergarten or visiting his grandmother,
  • navigates in space, knows the concepts of "left", "right", "up", "down",
  • holds attention, can do one thing (draw, sculpt, assemble the designer, etc.) 10-15 minutes.

Teaching a child to read should not begin with letters, but with sounds. It is the sounds that he hears from birth, and the letters are a means of recording sounds. Having learned to distinguish sounds in spoken words, merge sounds into syllables, divide words into syllables, the child will easily master reading.

Learning to distinguish sounds in words

Learning to read preschoolers begins with the fact that we teach the child to distinguish vowels and consonants, consonants, hard and soft. Vowels do not encounter obstacles in their path, they are formed only by voice, they can be sung, extended. Observe how the teeth and lips behave when making a sound. If they put a barrier, it is a consonant.

To hear the percussion sound in a word, it must be pronounced with surprise or inquiringly or “call” with this word: drum! umbrella? cat!

The peculiarity of the perception of a child of 4–5 years is that he needs to touch, disassemble and fold everything again in order to understand. The same principle should be followed when studying sounds.

With your child, take words into sounds literally. Let the vowels be red and the consonants blue cubes (no inscriptions). Build houses for them from words. Say the word "juice" yourself, then let the child pronounce it. Listen to the sounds, observe how the lips, teeth behave, at what moment they close.

Say the first sound - vowel or consonant? Lay out the first die. Say the second sound - vowel or consonant? Lay out the second cube and "read" the diagram. Are all the sounds lined up? Say the third sound and complete the circuit. Read the circuit, check if all the sounds are in place? When charting words made up of two syllables, designate stress. Next we add the designation of hard and soft sounds.

When studying sounds, take into account the peculiarity of the Russian language: the spelling does not always coincide with the pronunciation. Therefore, first suggest such words in which each sound is in a strong position, i.e. well heard when pronouncing. For vowels, this is a stressed position, the vowel "u" ​​is always well heard. Monosyllabic words (one syllable) with an unpaired consonant at the end or two-syllable (two syllables) with a vowel "u" ​​without stress or with "s" at the end of the word are suitable. For example, monosyllables: sleep, chalk, forest, spruce, ball, table, two-syllable: foxes, museum, sail, etc.

Having mastered the placement of such words into syllables, we can proceed to two-syllable and three-syllable words, the spelling of which coincides with the pronunciation, for example: saw, nose, cat, giraffe, cat, grandmother, salute, etc. In the word “nose” at the end we hear a sound “with "and we write the letter" c ", in contrast to the word" oak ", when pronouncing which we hear the sound" p ", but we write the letter" b ".

Only later can you offer words whose spelling and pronunciation do not match: frost, family, oak, water, forests.

We teach the child to divide words into syllables

Before the child begins to master the letter, teach him to divide words into syllables. Say words by slapping the number of syllables. There are as many syllables in a word as there are vowels in the Russian language: sa-mo-yo, ka-ran-dash - 3 vowels, 3 syllables, yeah - 2 vowels, 2 syllables, sport - 1 vowel, 1 syllable, 1 clap.

Play Finish the Word. You throw the child a ball, calling the first syllable of the word, for example, "ma". The child returns the ball, calling the ending, for example, “sha”. Say the word in full: Ma-sha. Guess the ending of words, swap places with the child.

Is the child ready to learn

Before starting the process itself, it is necessary to take into account the psychological and physical readiness of the baby for learning. There are several basic criteria by which you can determine in what way to start, so that training does not subsequently turn your preschooler away from reading for life.

  1. If your child speaks fluently with sentences and logically associates phrases, then it is time. Check if the son or daughter understands what you read.
  2. An important criterion is the ability to distinguish sounds. Speech therapists call this phonemic hearing. For example, mushroom - flu, soup - tooth, mouth - genus. Does the child understand that these words have different meanings?
  3. A big problem on the way to learning can be speech delay or incorrect pronunciation of some sounds: if the child does not pronounce sounds correctly, then the help of a speech therapist is required. Do not expect the problem to be solved by itself. Lead the child to the specialist for classes and attend them regularly, as well as be sure to complete the tasks that the teacher gives you to independently consolidate the training material. Speech delay, stuttering - it is necessary to show the child to a neurologist and psychiatrist. In any case, there is a reason, and it must be recognized.

  1. It is imperative to teach the baby where left and right, top and bottom. This will help him navigate the text: from which side to start reading the word, where is the top line and where is the bottom.

When to start learning to read

Many parents are so worried that their child will not have time to learn to read before school, that they begin to literally pester the baby at almost 2 years old.

  • At 3-4 years old, it may not be interesting for the baby to sit above the book. And this is normal. Each age has its own tasks.
  • If a child’s friend has been reading and knowing Fet and Tyutchev by heart from acquaintances, this does not mean that you should go. All children are so individual that general recommendations in any case remain only general. Learn to feel your baby.
  • At 5 or 6 years old is another matter. But if the kid does not go to kindergarten or to any classes for a certain reason, then start to teach him yourself. In an unobtrusive way, teach to write in capital letters the basic words “MOTHER”, “DAD”, “HOUSE”, “CAT”, your name. With minimal preparation, the child will much more easily tolerate adaptation in the first grade.

8 basic rules on how to teach a child to read syllables at home

They will help to orientate correctly and understand what is basic and what is secondary. Now in more detail.

  1. Start small: gradually learn letters and sounds as you walk. Draw a letter in the sand with a stick, then a syllable. The same can be done from twigs or pebbles. It will be interesting to learn to read crumbs, guessing familiar letters, and then syllables on signs. Show that letters and words surround us everywhere.
  2. A little later, the educational process can be transferred to the house. Set up a chair and desk for writing and reading. Make sure that there is proper lighting. Encourage the child to put the notebook, pen or pencil back in place. Books need a small shelf. Teach your baby to clean up and be organized. All this must be done in a relaxed manner. First, crumbs will be enough and 10 minutes a day.
  3. Read with pleasure yourself. Develop a reading culture in your family. Discuss what you read with your child. Ask the smaller one: who is drawn in the picture? Who is it about in a fairy tale? When the baby grows up, you can ask more complex questions: why did the hero of the fairy tale do this? And how would you do in his place?
  4. It would be more correct to start from simple words to more complex ones. Start with the words where the syllables are repeated: ma - ma, pa - pa, ba-ba, dya - dya. Then move on to the difficult ones: cat, de - re - in, baby, veter.
  5. Get some sensible textbooks: a primer (author N. S. Zhukova), Favorite alphabet (Irina Solnyshko), primers, sponsored by N. Betenkova, V. Goretsky, D. Fonin, N. Pavlova, magnetic alphabet, cubes with letters. Draw vowels on the cards and place them throughout the apartment. Gradually, the child will remember them all. Then swap them. Then do the same with the consonants.
  6. Alphabets and primers require more perseverance, but also gradually teach the child not only letters, but also syllables. Associative thinking will help you learn the alphabet faster: the letter “A” is an album, “B” is a squirrel, “C” is a bicycle, and bright pictures will help you remember more quickly.
  7. Repeat what you’ve already learned. If you started to study, then do it systematically. Otherwise, there will be no result. When in line or on the road, read a small book with your child. Time will pass faster, and even with benefit.
  8. Most importantly, do not force, do not be nervous, and do not use violence. Childhood is a golden time, do not forget about it. Not at all optional: if you want and want, then your child wants the same.

The game video Luntik teaches letters and helps to prepare for school. Together with him, having completed several interesting and diverse lessons, the child will learn letters and the alphabetical order.

How to learn letters with a child

After the child has learned to distinguish the sounds that make up the words, we move from sounds to letters.

As a rule, there are no difficulties with learning the alphabet. Children readily remember letters, remember their name. You can use letters-magnets, letters-stickers, letters made of various materials - rough, smooth, soft. Place them on a special board, tablet, highlight the space on the wall of the nursery, on the refrigerator, on cabinets.

Collect a piggy bank for each letter: these may be objects whose name begins with this letter. Go through the toys, for sure there will be suitable items: “A” - an angel, an orange, “I” - an apple, “K” - a cube, a pencil, “B” - a bulldozer, banana. Slam the syllables by saying the words. Offer your child items and discuss together whether this letter will “be friends” with him. It’s still difficult for the child to find the right word, but be sure to support the initiative, remembering the principle: do it together, but not instead.

Consider the letter. What does she look like? What parts does it consist of? Imagine with your child: “B” looks like glasses, “E” looks like a brush. What does the letter M look like? Consider the drawings in which the letters "hid". Fold letters from cereals, buttons, sculpt from clay, clay, draw in different colors. The task is to teach the child to recognize the graphic appearance of letters, correlate with the sound that they denote.

Learn letters in alphabetical order is not recommended. Currently, there are two main principles of studying the alphabet.

Frequency (V.G. Goretsky). First, the most common sounds are studied, then the less common ones are followed, and finally, a group of less common sounds is introduced.

The positional principle (DB Elkonin). Sounds are studied in pairs, in accordance with the phonetic system of the Russian language: vowels "A" - "I", "O" - "E", paired consonants: "C" - "Z", "D" - "T", etc. d.

How to teach a child to read syllables

Whatever sequence you follow, introducing the child to vowels, tell us that these letters not only indicate a vowel sound, but also suggest how to read the consonant in front of them.

Having studied several letters, for example, "A", "I", "O", "E", "M", "H", "L", "C", "K", try to read syllables and short words. Before you read the syllable, look at the letter for the vowel. What work does she do: softens the consonant or indicates its hardness?

Compare the consonants in the words “CAT” and “KIT”. What sound does the letter “K” mean in both words? Which letter tells you that K is pronounced softly? Reason with your child: in the word "KOT" the letter "O" denotes the vowel sound "O", it does not soften the consonant, therefore we pronounce the solid sound "K". In the word “KIT” the letter “I” indicates softness, we pronounce the sound “K” gently.

When reading the words, orient the child to the vowel. Vowels denoting the softness of the previous consonant: "I", "E", "E", "Yu", "And." Next, suggest words with the letter "b" at the end of the word, it also indicates gentleness, but it is not pronounced: HORSE, ELK, GOES. Having mastered the principle of merging a consonant with a vowel, methods of designating softness on a letter, a child will be able to read any word, knowing what sound a particular letter means.

The principle of complicating words for reading is the same as when studying sounds: from monosyllables with clearly audible sounds - to words whose spelling matches the sound, and words whose spelling and sound does not match.

Hold on at this point. Do not rush to read sentences and text. Play with the words. Collect words from cards with syllables, find “extra” words for various reasons, for example, the shortest / longest, by the number of syllables, by value - TABLE, SPOON, BED, etc. Suggest words that differ in one sound: BOW - Luke, accent: ZÁMOK - LOCK, find the hidden words in the word: RHINOUR, sand, pin and the like. Read the slides: the first word consists of two letters, the second of three, and so on. Such game tasks will help to consolidate the syllabic reading skill and prepare for reading complex and new words.

Read the sentences

Having mastered the reading of words, go to sentences, and then to small texts. There are special publications for beginners to read children. It is important that the reading is pleasing to the child, is difficult, but doable.

What difficulties most often arise at this stage?

Sound merging. If the child pronounces each sound individually, but fails to pronounce it together, draw a path, write two letters of the syllable along the edges. Put your child’s finger on the first sound, drag it while you “run” along the path to the second. Hand out sounds together with the child, show how they merge into a word.

Regression. These are the return movements of the eyes with the aim of re-reading the already read. In order not to form a habit of reading and speaking a word several times, carefully observe how the child reads. Do not rush to switch from syllabic reading to reading in words, otherwise the child will get used to first reading to himself in syllables, and then reading out loud with a whole word.

Anticipation. This is the name of the semantic conjecture, the ability to assume the logic of the text. A very useful skill, but in the early stages of learning to read leads to errors. The child, in a hurry to read the word and get approval, “omits” the endings, having read only the first syllable, “thinks out” the word. To overcome such mistakes, suggest games with words, for example, to read "gibberish" verses - a set of rhyming combinations of sounds. And again, do not “drive” the child to master reading skills. This is a long and complicated process.

Try to orient your child immediately meaningful reading. Before reading, review the illustrations, read the headline, suggest what the text is about, ask questions. While reading, ask clarifying questions to understand what has already been read, and clarify the meaning of new words. After reading, discuss who they read about, what he / she is doing. Draw, play the read stories.

To overcome slow reading, develop a child’s memory, attention. Play with words and words, expand your vocabulary. The success of learning to read is determined by the development of thinking, memory and speech, formed by motivation.


I hope that after reading the article, the question of how to teach your child to read syllables at home will not cause you confusion. And you will definitely determine for yourself how to organize the learning process for your son or daughter. To make it easier for you to draw up an action plan, here are a few more recommendations:

  • Before you start learning, make sure that the child is really ready for it. Do not force, try to conduct training, especially at the initial stage, in a playful way.
  • Despite many methods, first of all, a child needs happy and loving parents. If you have established contact with the baby, then any method of training will bring results.
  • Start small, gradually move on to the more difficult. If you started training, then do not be lazy and do not stop, only then you can learn to read. Even if everything is going well, do not forget that your favorite student is just a child and sometimes just wants to play or run.

Good luck and patience!

Yours Tatyana Kemishis

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At what age should a child be taught to read?

There is no consensus. Some parents are convinced that the child should be taught reading at 4-5 years old. Others lower the bar to 2-3 years. Still others insist that the child should not be “tormented” before school. Like, teaching reading is the task of school teachers. Who to believe?

Каждый ребенок развивается в своем темпе. Поэтому не привязывайтесь к конкретному возрасту, а оценивайте, насколько будущий читатель «созрел» к обучению.

Ребенок точно готов учиться читать, если он:

  • умеет строить целостные предложения, говорит четко и связно,
  • easily pronounces and distinguishes the sounds of speech, does not confuse consonant syllables (zhaz, yes) and letters in consonant words (code-cat),
  • distinguishes between the concepts of right-left, top-bottom,
  • pronounces the letters correctly,
  • showing interest in letters and reading.

If the child does not meet the criteria in some way, but shows interest in letters and books, this is normal. The speech is not as coherent as we would like - we communicate more with the child, ask and answer his questions. Instead of [c], it turns out [w] - we find speech therapy exercises, perform special gymnastics, or go to a speech therapist.

Does the child no longer just examine books with illustrations, but asks or even demands to read something or tries to figure it out himself?
The time has come. Do not miss the moment.

Syllable reading (phonetic method)

The classic technique used in kindergartens and elementary schools. First, the child learns to pronounce sounds (phonetics) and letters, then combine them into syllables and whole words.

Typical arsenal: alphabet, primer, cards with letters and syllables.

  • “+” A child easily hears sounds in words and pronounces them, gets rid of speech defects in case he has them.
  • “-” The method is not suitable for younger preschoolers (3-4 years old) and younger children, because It requires a certain level of knowledge and takes a lot of time.

Cubes of Zaitsev

On special cubes, the child sees all frequently used syllables, single letters and pairs of consonants and hard or soft signs.

Each cube has a certain size, color, sound, so that the child, along with letters and warehouses, remembers their characteristics. For example, iron cubes denote sonorous syllables, wooden ones deaf, large vowels are placed on large cubes, and soft ones on small ones.

  • “+” The technique is not tied to age, training takes place in the form of a game that develops musical ear, fine motor skills, etc.
  • “-” Zaitsev’s cubes have flaws that lead to the fact that children “swallow” the endings of words and misunderstand the phonetic composition of the word (they have to relearn at school).

Glen Doman's Cards (reading whole words)

The method consists in the fact that already from infancy a child begins to show cards with pictures and words, clearly speaking them. Children perceive words not in parts, but as whole units.

  • "+" The ability to start learning from early childhood, the development of phenomenal memory.
  • “-” A side effect of Glenn Doman’s methodology is literacy problems, difficulties in parsing words by composition.

The technique of Maria Montessori

The child plays with letters made of rough paper that are glued on cardboard plates.

He repeats the sound after the adults, and then he traces the outline of the letter with his finger. Then words and phrases are composed of letters in special frames.

  • "+" Game training, development of fine motor skills.
  • “-” The technique requires material costs and is more designed for group classes.

In-game exercises

LogicLike team regularly creates interesting tasks for the development of logical thinking and other major abilities in children.

Entertaining games and tasks for the development of thinking in children from 5 years.

We also have an author's set of exercises that will help the child develop reading skills with interest:

Secret Letters

Try to write letters to the child on behalf of his beloved character or toy so that he wants to answer them. You can purchase in the book and ready-made materials for such letters.

Example: notebook “I will teach you to read” with letters of the gnome Gosh.

Psychological pressure

“You are already 5 years old, but you still cannot read! How will they take you to school? ”Intimidation will only ward off the child’s desire to do. Or even cause fear of reading.

English writer Aidan Chambers in his book “Tell. We read, think, discuss, "wrote that it is important to praise a small reader for every achievement. So he went to look at the books, took one of them, and then suddenly decided to switch to another. And each of these steps is important.

Read books with your child

Discuss and retell their content so that the child understands and remembers the text. You can read aloud interesting excerpts from books and invite the child to find out what will be discussed next, after reading the book yourself.

Show the children that reading is the key to the door behind which many magical worlds lie. A child who is keen on books will study with interest and learn new things every day. Be a child mentor who will always support and give advice.